Social Institutions: Fraternal Orders
William Edward Burghardt Dubois called a group of Blacks together in June 1905 to explore strategies for improving the political and social fortunes of the Black people. Twenty-nine of them gathered on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls to avoid the racial discrimination on the American side. They launched what became known as the Niagara Movement.
Churches, schools, lodges (such as as the Masonic Lodge), and fraternal groups contributed to the socialization process. Lodges also provided burial insurance.